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Ireland operates a fishing license system for salmon fishing (there is no need to buy a license for trout or coarse fishing). You can buy a National License to fish all over the Republic or a District License which limits you to the relevant area. Ireland is making strong efforts to preserve salmon and sea trout with a wide range of regulations in place. Make sure you find out what the local rules are.
In the Shannon Region you will need a permit to fish for for trout, pike and coarse fish but oddly not for the Shannon itself.
All salmon and sea trout over 40cm that are killed must be tagged and recorded in your log book. All salmon and sea trout returned must be recorded too. It is an offence to kill sea trout in Galway, Connemara, parts of Bangor District and Ballnakill Fishery and at sea from Hags Head and Clew Bay.
As part of the conservation measures a number of fisheries are catch and release only for salmon and sea trout and quite a few are completely closed until such times as the stocks are found to have recovered sufficiently enough to be fished again. When chosing to go fishing in Ireland it is advisable to check out the status of the rivers you plan to fish.